GemLand brings you Arizona geology, Arizona stargazing, Gemological Services, jewelry, and Archaeology.
Geology of Phoenix, Scottsdale tours, Sedona tours, Arizona hikes, Arizona Gemstones and meteorites, Sky Jewels (TM) stargazing, and more are yours with GemLand.
GemLand -- Arizona geology tours, Arizona stargazing with Sky Jewels(tm), the best in scenic resorts, Arizona Peridot, Four Peaks Amethyst, Native American jewelry, meteorites, and more!

 
Read
GeoStories
& be part of GemLand at:

Visit the GemLand Blog!

 
INTERACTIVE
MAPS
for
GeoScenery:

Tour the Valley of the Sun and its GeoScenery.
Take a virtual tour of the Superstition Mountains, near Phoenix, Apache Junction, and Gold Canyon, Arizona.
Take a virtual tour of Sedona, Flagstaff, Jerome, and the Verde Valley areas, in Arizona.

 
Website
Sections:

Back to GemLand Home Page -- Gemology, Geology, and Stargazing.
About GemLand -- Arizona Geology Tours, Sky Jewels Stargazing, Gemological Services.
Gemological Services, Gemstones, Arizona Peridot, Four Peaks Amethyst, Navajo Garnets, Turquoise, Diamonds, Jewelry from Gemland.
Rock Gardens, Rock Art, Petroglyphs, and Rock Sculpture in the Valley of the Sun, Phoenix, and Scottsdale, Arizona.
Geological History of The Valley of the Sun and the Superstition Mountains, Arizona.
GeoStories includes geologically, archaeologically, and astronomically inspired articles and stories by Richard Allen, and other recommended reading about the Valley of the Sun and other places in the American West.
Arizona Geology and Geology Tours by GemLand, formerly Gem-Land Adventures.
GemLand presents a variety of things pertaining to rocks -- gemological, geological, and astronomical. Movies, hikes, oddities, links to other sites, and more.
Arizona Astronomy, Arizona Stargazing, Telescopes, Sky Jewels (tm) Stargazing by GemLand.

 
other
Services:

Contact GemLand for more information or to answer a question.
Send an email link to this GemLand page to your friends!
GemLand in Spanish.

 
If you like
rocks, scenery,
prehistory,
gemstones,

geology, & stars
in the sky,

to our
FREE EMAIL
NEWSLETTER.

gemland, Gem Land, Camelback Mountain, geology tours, Arizona geology, geological tours, gemological services, rock art, rock gardens, petroglyphs, The Boulders, Camelback Inn, Four Seasons, Seasons Resort, JW Marriott, Desert Ridge, Sanctuary, Sanctuary on Camelback, Ridge Marriott, Scottsdale Princess, feng shui, Phoenix geology, Valley of the Sun, Four Peaks Amethyst, San Carlos, Arizona Peridot, Squaw Peak, South Mountain, Desert Mountain, Kitt Peak, Lowell Observatory, Stellar Adventures, Hummer tours, Desert Botanical, Arizona stargazing, Pueblo Grande, suiseki, geopathic, Paradise Valley, Cave Creek, jeep tours, Sears Kay, Sears-Kay Ruins, Taliesin West, Heard Museum, Crown King, Bloody Basin, Superstition Mountains, Lost Dutchman, Dutchman Mine, Sonoran Desert, Sky Harbor, Casa Grande, Hohokam, Anasazi, Navajo, Apache, skywatchers, Meteor Crater, Arizona hiking, turquoise jewelry, Native American jewelry, Navaho jewelry, Maricopa, Carefree Arizona, Arizona gemstones, metamorphic core, core complex, precambrian granite, basalt, Black Canyon, Anthem, New River, Agua Fria

GemLand -- Phoenix tours, Scottsdale, Arizona geology, gemological services, Four Peaks Amethyst, Arizona Peridot, Sky Jewels (R), Arizona stargazing, Navajo jewelry.
INTERACTIVE MAP:
 

The Ancient
Hohokam Canal System
in the Valley of the Sun

   Geoarchaeology is a rapidly expanding science, and modification of the Earth by humans does qualify as geology at work (see our FREE GeoStory(TM) called "Rooms with a View" for more on this subject)!  For these reasons we have decided to include this subject in our website.
 
   The map below the approximate location of canals created by the people during a period beginning about 500 CE (current era) and ending about 1450 CE.  This is roughly equal to the period in European history between the end of the Roman Empire and the "Renaissance".
 
   Phoenix and its suburbs of Scottsdale, Glendale, Tempe, Chandler, and Mesa now occupy this site -- once one of the greatest centers of prehistoric civilization in North America.  By some estimates, up to 50,000 people then lived here!   Probably nowhere north of the Valley of Mexico (Teotihuacan / Tenochtitlan) was as populous at the time.
 
   A few major archaeological sites are also shown, including the big one preserved today at Pueblo Grande Museum.
   Names in BRIGHT RED are active links to more information.  Please use our GeoScenery Map to compare the ancient locations to present-day features.
 
   There is little evidence of the old canals today, but many of the working canals running through modern day Phoenix were originally based on the Hohokam system.

The Hohokam people built this "platform mound" more than six centuries ago!
Pueblo Grande Ruins

   You can email this page to your friends if you like, and you can toggle between this map and a modern day map, where you can also see the names of the mountain ranges and other features.  That map is at the same scale as this one.

If you like rocks, gems,
geology, hiking,
& stars in the sky,

to our FREE EMAIL

NEWSLETTER.

  You can see more about the Grotto on  Camelback Mountain, in the Camelback sequence of eight views.
 

  Another of the photo sequences from the GeoScenery section of this website shows an ancient Hohokam Solar Observatory on Shaw Butte.

  You can also read a short GeoStory(TM) about those ruins as well as some modern day ones in "Rooms with a View".
  It is in PDF format, so you can print it off easily if you like.

  If you like those stories, there are other in the GeoStories section.

  Also, see the GeoArt page for views of ancient rock art.

  You can also join us for an actual tour specializing in local archaeology and geology!

The Ancient Hohokam Canals of Phoenix and Tempe.

   The map above is based on work done by Omar Turney in 1929.  According to him, the system encompassed "the largest single body of land irrigated in prehistoric times in North or South America, and perhaps in the world".  The system utilized at least 1000 miles (1600 km) of canals and irrigated over 100,000 acres (40,470 hectares) of land.
   The area shown measures about 50 miles (80 km) West to East, by 40 miles (64km) North to South, and encompasses approximately 2000 square miles (5200 km).  The scale is the same as the map of the Rock Formations of the Valley of the Sun.

 
Sedona, arizona, gemstones, geology, stargazing, Scottsdale, Tempe GemLand, arizona, gemstones, geology, Mesa, stargazing, Scottsdale, Phoenix, Tempe Scottsdale, arizona, gemstones, geology, stargazing, Phoenix, Tempe
Superstitions, arizona, gems, geology, stargazing, Scottsdale, Phoenix, Tempe

Home  |  About GemLand  |  Gemology
GeoScenery of the Valley of the Sun
GeoScenery of the Superstition Mtns
GeoScenery of Sedona and the Verde Valley
Astronomy  |  GeoArt
GeoHistory of the Colorado Plateau
GeoHistory of the Valley of the Sun & Superstition Mtns
GeoStories  |  GeoTours  |  GeoZones
Contact GemLand
Send this Page to your Friends!

ON THIS MAP:

[Camelback Grotto]  [Deer Valley Rock Art Center]
[Pueblo Grande Museum]  [Solar Observatory]

GemLand can be contacted at info@gemland.com.
Questions about this site or its design?  Contact the webmaster.
[011413]

Turquoise, arizona, stones, geology, Sedona, Scottsdale, Phoenix, Tempe
Gem-Land, astronomy, diamonds, geology, stargazing, Sedona, Phoenix, Tempe Gem Land, Southwest, gems, geology, stargazing, Scottsdale, Phoenix, Apache
The Boulders, Camelback Inn, Royal Palms, Four Seasons, Arizona Biltmore, Seasons Resort, Sanctuary, Sanctuary Camelback, Scottsdale Princess, geology geology tours, Sedona, Arizona geology, Superstition Mountains, geological tours, Arizona gems
GemLand, arizona, Jerome, Sedona, geology, stargazing, Scottsdale, Phoenix, Tempe